Herman Eliot Hayward was born on April 23rd, 1892 in Somerville, Massachusetts (DSS Form 1, Draft Registration Card 1942 lists place of birth as “Summerville, Mass”) to Henry Hayward (b. Jun 1866 in Massachusetts) and Grace Dickerman Hayward (note the California Death Index cites her maiden name as “Dickerma”) (b. 1868 in Massachusetts), according to the U.S. Census (1900). It should be noted that the 1910 U.S. Census reported that Herman Hayward was born in 1893.
Herman Hayward had five siblings, none of whom survived into adulthood (personal communication, William Hayward). The Henry Hayward family moved several times, including to Colorado Springs, CO where Henry was in the “livery business” (U.S. Census 1900). They later resided in Mankato, MN where Henry was a salesman (U.S. Census 1910).
Herman Hayward probably enrolled at the University of Minnesota in 1910-1911 (several early citations (Davis 1912, 1914; Krupinski 1913) indicated that he was in the class of 1914.) Hayward worked for the U.S. Forest Service as a Forest Guard in Dillon, MT in June – September of 1911 and probably 1912 (personal communication, William Hayward). He was a Forestry major and apparently quite active in undergraduate activities including serving as president of the Junior Ball Association (the ball was held on 26 Mar 1913), a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity, a member of the Forestry Club, and a member of the football team, at least in 1912-1913 (Krupinski 1913). His obituary noted that he was a 140 pound quarterback at the University of Minnesota (Riverside Press-Enterprise 1960). Herman Hayward was first married in 1913 (Davis 1914, p. 59). In addition to his undergraduate studies, he worked for the Minneapolis Gas Company as a bookkeeper/clerk from June 1913-September 1916 (personal communication, William Hayward). He earned his B.A. degree at the University of Minnesota in 1916 (Cattell 1955).
Hayward accepted a position as Instructor in Biology at State Teachers College in River Falls, WI for the 1917-1918 academic year. During World War I he was in the U.S. Army from May 16 to December 8, 1918 as a 2nd Lieutenant and Instructor in the Artillery (personal communication, William Hayward). He spent most of his time at the Field Artillery Replacement Depot at Camp Taylor, Kentucky (Meletean 1919).
The 1920 U. S. Census shows Herman E. Hayward (age 27) lived in River Falls, WI and was married to Marlys Hayward (age 27) with a son, Richard (b. 1915) and a daughter named Marlys (b. 1917) with a boarder (Ethyl West, age 32). The daughter, Marlys, died at age 3 of unknown causes (personal communication, William Hayward).
After World War I Hayward returned to the State Teachers College at River Falls, WI as a professor and taught there until 1927. While at River Falls, he was very involved with institutional activities, including duties as football coach, “military roster,” freshman class advisor (1920), sophomore class advisor (1921), third year class advisor and Dean of Men (1922). In 1923 he continued his position as Dean of Men, but resigned from his position as football coach. The 1924 River Falls yearbook was dedicated to Hayward “for advice and guidance.” In that year he continued to serve on the Biology faculty, as Dean of Men, senior class advisor and Student Social Committee advisor.
While teaching at River Falls he was awarded a S.M. (master of science) degree at the University of Chicago in 1925. It was during the summers of 1926 and 1927 that he collected plants in the Black Hills of South Dakota. His collection notes are currently housed at the Milwaukee Public Museum.
Specimen data are available through the BHSU Herbarium database. Field notes have been scanned and are available at the database introduction page.
In September of 1927 Hayward accepted a position as Instructor in Botany at the University of Chicago (personal communication, William Hayward). He earned his Ph.D. in 1928 at that institution with his dissertation Studies of Plants in the Black Hills of South Dakota. That work was later published in the Botanical Gazette (Hayward 1928).
The 1930 U. S. Census shows that the Herman Hayward family resided in Chicago, IL. Hayward (age 37) lived with Marloise [sic](age 38, born in Iowa) and their son Richard (age 14, born in Minnesota).
Hayward advanced rapidly in academic rank at the University of Chicago. He became an assistant professor in 1928, associate professor in 1929, and attained the rank of full professor in 1931. It is remarkable that Hayward gained the rank of full professor in just four years. Herman Hayward contracted tuberculosis and was on leave from the University of Chicago from 1932-1934 in Illinois and New Mexico (personal communication, William Hayward).
Hayward’s most famous publication is The Structure of Economic Plants (1938). This impressive and detailed 674 page volume is still being cited in modern literature. It was translated into both German (1948) and Spanish (1953). The book was reprinted in 1967.
In 1938-1939 Hayward accepted a position of visiting professor at the California Institute of Technology. This was apparently a sabbatical year (personal communication, William Hayward).
On February 11, 1939 Herman Hayward married for a second time to Jean Henrietta Port (Obituary in Idaho Statesman 26 May 2013). The 1940 U.S. Census indicated that Herman Hayward (age 47) lived in Riverside, CA. The household included Herman Hayward, Jean Port Hayward (age 28) and one son, Fred M. Hayward (age 0) who was born in California.
In 1939 Hayward began his work as a Research Agent for the U.S. Salinity Laboratory in Riverside, California. By 1940 he filled the position of Senior Plant Anatomist which he held until 1945. By 1945 he became Director of the U.S. Salinity Laboratory and held that position until 1960 (personal communication, William Hayward; Cattell 1955).
Hayward died at age 68 of a heart attack on May 31st, 1960 (Riverside Press-Enterprise). Jean Port Hayward died at the age of 101 on May 22nd, 2013 (Idaho Statesman). A list of Herman Hayward’s publications is appended.
We wish to thank the South Dakota Humanities Council for support for this project. We also wish to thank Fred Hayward, William Hayward and Carol (Hayward) VanDusen for much assistance and information about their father. In addition we appreciate the assistance of the Milwaukee Public Museum for access to Herman Hayward’s field notes that were written while he was working in the Black Hills.
Cattell, J. 1955. American men of science: a biographical directory II. Biological Sciences, 9th ed., Science Press, Lancaster, PA. 1276 pp.
Davis, T.A. (ed.). 1912. The year book of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity. Volume 26. Collegiate Press, George Banta Publishing, Menasha, WI.
Davis, T.A. 1914. The scroll of Phi Delta Theta. Volume 38. Collegiate Press, George Banta Publishing, Menasha, WI.
Hayward, H.E. 1928. Studies of the plants in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Botanical Gazette 85:353-412.
Hayward, H.E. 1938. The structure of economic plants. The Macmillan Co., New York.
Idaho Statesman (Boise). 2013. Obituary of Jean Henrietta Port Hayward, published 26 May 2013)
Krupinski, L. (ed.). 1913. The Gopher (yearbook of the University of Minnesota, 1914) Volume 27.
Meletean (Yearbook of the University of Wisconsin, River Falls). 1919. Members of the faculty who have seen service. P. 29.
Riverside Press-Enterprise . 1960. Obituary of Herman E. Hayward.
United States Census. 1900. Family Search (https://familysearch.org/search/) accessed 19 May 2016.
United States Census. 1910. Family Search (https://familysearch.org/search/) accessed 19 May 2016.
United States Census. 1920. Family Search (https://familysearch.org/search/) accessed 19 May 2016.
United States Census. 1930. Family Search (https://familysearch.org/search/) accessed 19 May 2016.
United States Census. 1940. Family Search (https://familysearch.org/search/) accessed 19 May 2016.
Publications by Herman E. Hayward
Hayward, H.E. 1928. Studies of plants in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Botanical Gazette 85:353-412. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2470469
Hayward, H.E. 1932. The seedling anatomy of Ipomoea batatas. Botanical Gazette 93:400-420.
Hayward, H.E. 1938. The structure of economic plants. The MacMillan Company.
Hayward, H.E. and E.M. Long. 1941. Anatomical and physiological responses of the tomato to varying concentrations of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, and nutrient solutions. Bot. Gaz. 102:437-462.
Hayward, H.E. and E.M. Long. 1942. The anatomy of the seedling and roots of the Valencia orange. U.S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 786
Hayward, H.E. and W.M. Blair. 1942. Some responses of Valencia orange seedlings to varying concentrations of chloride and hydrogen ions. Amer. J. Bot. 29:148-155.
Hayward, H.E., W.M. Blair and P.E. Skaling. 1942. Device for measuring entry of water into roots. Bot. Gaz. 104:152-160.
Hayward, H.E. and E.M. Long. 1942. Vegetative responses of the Elberta peach on Lovell and Shalil rootstocks to high chloride and sulfate solutions. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 41:149-155.
Hayward, H.E. and E.M. Long. 1943. Some effects of sodium salts on the growth of the tomato. Plant Physiology 18:556-569.
Hayward, H.E. and W.B. Spurr. 1943. Effects of osmotic concentration of substrate on the entry of water into corn roots. Bot. Gaz. 105:152-164.
Spurr, W.B. and H.E. Hayward. 1944. The tolerance of flax to saline conditions: Effect of sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and sodium sulphite. J. Amer. Soc. Agron. 36:287-300.
Hayward, H.E. and W.B. Spurr. 1944. Effects of isosmotic concentrations of inorganic and organic substrates on entry of water into corn roots. Bot. Gaz. 106:131-139.
Hayward, H.E., E.M. Long and R. Uhvits. 1946. Effect of chloride and sulfate salts on the growth and development of the Elberta peach on Shalil and Lovell rootstocks. U.S. Dep. Agr. Tech Bull. 922.
Hayward, H.E. and O.C. Magistad. 1946. The salt problem in irrigation agriculture. U.S.D.A. Misc. Publ. 607.
Hayward, H.E. 1947. The control of salinity. Science In Farming. Yearbook of Agriculture. (U.S.D.A.) p. 547-553.
Ayers, A.D. and H.E. Hayward. 1948. A method for measuring the effects of soil salinity on seed germination with observations on several crop plants. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 13:224-226.
Hayward, H.E. and C.H. Wadleigh. 1949. Plant growth on saline and alkali soils. Advance. Agron. 1:1-38.
Chapman, H.D., L.V. Wilcox and H.E. Hayward. 1947. Water quality from an agricultural point of view. In Report of Interim Fact-Finding Committee on Water Pollution. Assembly of State of California Publ.p. 134.
Wadleigh, C.H., H.E. Hayward and A.D. Ayers. 1951. First year growth of stone fruits on saline substrates. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 57:31-36.
Fireman, M. and H.E. Hayward. 1952. Indicator significance of some shrubs in the Escalante Desert. Utah. Bot. Gaz. 114:143-155.
Hayward, H.E. 1952. Plant growth under saline conditions. UNESCO, Paris. Provisional reproduction without figures. (63 Superseded by Pub).
Hayward, H.E. 1953. Salinity in Western irrigated soils. Amer. Fruit Grower (West.Ed.). (73 West. Ed.)-12.
Hayward, H.E. 1954. Plant growth under saline conditions. In Reviews of research on problems of utilization of saline water.Arid Zone Programme, UNESCO, Paris.p. 37 71.-71.
Hayward, H.E. 1954. Sodium hazard in Western irrigated soils. Amer.Fruit Grower (West.Ed.). (74 West. Ed.)-12.
Hayward, H.E. 1954. Saline and alkali soils -- their diagnosis and improvement. Soil Conservation. 20:75-81.
Fireman, M. and H.E. Hayward. 1955. Irrigation water and saline and alkali soils. Yearbook Agr.(US Dept. Agr.) p. 321 327-327 US Dept. Agr.
Hayward, H.E. 1956. The salinity factor in the reuse of waste waters. In The Future of Arid Lands, Amer. Assoc. Advance. Sci. Publ. 43:279-290.
Hayward, H.E. 1955. Factors affecting the salt tolerance of horticultural crops. Int. Hort. Congr. Rep. (14 Netherlands):385-399.
Brown, J.W. and H.E. Hayward. 1956. Salt tolerance of alfalfa varieties. Agron. J. 48:18-20.
Bernstein, L., J.W. Brown and H.E. Hayward. 1956. The influence of rootstock on growth and salt accumulation in stone-fruit trees and almonds. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 68:86-95.
Pearson, G.A., J.A. Goss and H.E. Hayward. 1957. The influence of salinity and water table on the growth and mineral composition of young grapefruit trees. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 69:197-203.
Hayward, H.E. and L. Bernstein. 1958. Plant-growth relationships on salt-affected soils. Bot. Rev. 24:584-635.
Bernstein, L. and H.E. Hayward. 1958. Physiology of salt tolerance. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 9:25-46.
Richards, L.A. and H.E. Hayward. 1959. Salinity hazards. Intersociety Conf.Irrigation and Drainage, Proc.lst. 93 96.-96.