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BIOL 123 Study Guides

Physiology Lecture Outline                                 (Exam 1)

BIOL 123                                                                     (Fall '07)

 


1) Introduction

Scientific method

Drug development

Homeostasis

Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback

Muscle Tissue

Skeletal vs. Cardiac vs. Smooth

Neural Tissue

Polarity

Dendrites, Soma, Axon, Terminal

Epithelium

Specializations

Simple vs. Stratified

Squamous vs. Cuboidal vs. Columnar

Connective Tissue

 

2) Chemical Composition

Atoms, Ions, and Bonds

Atomic Structure

Chemical Bonds

Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen

Inorganic Compounds

Water

Polar Characteristics

Acids and Bases

Organic Compounds

Carbohydrates

Simple, Complex

Lipids

Triglycerides, Steroids

Proteins

Enzymes

Nucleic Acids

DNA, RNA, ATP, etc.

 

3) Cell Structure

Plasma Membrane

Composition

Transport

Diffusion

Phagocytosis

Pinocytosis

Carrier-Mediated Endocytosis

Exocytosis

Cilia, Flagelli, & Microvilli

Cytoplasm

Cytosol

Cytoskeleton

Organelles

Nucleus

Mitochondria

Lysozomes

Endoplasmic Reticulum

SER vs. RER

Golgi Complex

Protein Production

 

4) Enzymes and Energy

Enzymes as Catalysts

Mechanisms of Action

Control of Enzyme Activity

Temperature & pH

Cofactors & Coenzymes

Substrate Concentration

(Vmax & Km)

Reversible Reactions

Bioenergetics

Endergonic & Exergonic Rx

Coupled Reactions

(ATP or Oxidation-Reduction)

Energy Content of Food

 

5) Cell Respiration and Metabolism

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Glycolysis

Lactic Acid Pathway

Glycogenesis & Glycogenolysis

Cori Cycle & Gluconeogenesis

Kreb's Cycle

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Chemiosmotic Coupling of H+ gradient to ATP production

ATP Balance Sheet

Lipid Metabolism

Protein (Amino Acid) Metabolism

 

6) Interactions Between Cells and the Extracellular Environment

Diffusion and Osmosis

Carrier-mediated Transport

Facilitated Diffusion

Active Transport

 

 

 

 

Physiology Lecture Outline                                 (Exam 2)

BIOL 123                                                                     (Fall '07)

 


6)  Membranes and Transport

Membrane Transport

Diffusion

Osmosis

Osmolarity and Tonicity

Carrier-mediated Transport

Faciliated Diffusion

Primaty Active Transport

Secondary Active Transport

Cotransp., Countertransp.

Vesicular Transport

Exocytosis

Endocytosis

Pinocytosis

Receptor-mediated Endocytosis

Transmembrane Potential

Nernst Potential

 

7)  Neurons and Synapses

Neurons

Structure

Dendrite

Soma

Axon

Spike Initiation Zone (= initial segment or axon hillock)

Bouton (= axon terminal)

Neuroglia

PNS -  Schwaan cells

Satellite cells

CNS -  Astrocytes

Oligodendrocytes

Microglia

Ependymal cells

Electrical Activity

Changes in Transmembr. Pot'l

Graded Potentials

Depol'n, Hyperpol'n

Action Potentials (AP)

All-or-None Principle

Threshold

Generation of AP

Volt.-gated Channels

Na+, K+

Refractory Period

Propagation of AP

Myelinat'n, Axon Diam.

Synapse

Electrical Synapses

Gap Junctions

Chemical Synapses

Neurotransmitters

Acetylcholine

Monoamines

Serotonin

Catecholamines

Dopamine

Norepinephrine

Epinephrine

Amino Acids

Glutamate (& Asp.)

Glycine

GABA

Neuropeptides

Substance P

Peptide Y

Endogenous Opioids

Enkephalins

Endorphins

Dynorphins

Endogenous Cannabinoid

Nitric Oxide (& CO)

Synaptic Integration

Post-synaptic Potentials

EPSP, IPSP

Summation

Spatial, Temporal

 

8)  Central Nervous System

Organization of the Brain

Embryological Regions

1oà2o Vesicles

Protection and Support of the Brain

Meninges

Pia, Arachnoid, Dura

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

Formation of CSF

Choroid Plexus

Circulation of CSF

Ventricles

Apertures

Arachnoid Granulations

Cerebrum

Cerebral Cortex

Lobes

Sensory Cortices

Association Cortices

Hemispheric Lateralization

Basal Nuclei

Limbic System

Papez' Circuit

Diencephalon

Epithalamus

Pineal gland

Thalamus

Anterior Nucleus

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

Medial Geniculate Nucleus

Hypothalamus

Supraoptic nucleus (ADH)

Paraventricular Nucleus (oxytocin)

Mammilary Bodies

Autonomic control centers

Pituitary Gland

Posteror & Anterior

Mesencephalon

Tectum

Superior Colliculus

Inferior Colliculus

Tegmentum

Red Nucleus

Substantia Nigra

Ventral Tegmental Area

Pons

pneumotaxic & apneustic centers

Cerebellum

Medulla Oblongata

cardiovascular centers

respiratory rythmicity center

reticular formation

Spinal Cord Tracts

Ascending Pathways

Posterior Column

Anterolateral (spinothalamic)

Spinocerebellar

Descending Pathways

Corticospinal (pyramidal)

Extrapyramidal

Vestibulospinal Tract

Reticulospinal Tract

Tectospinal Tract

Rubrospinal Tract

Cranial Nerves

Olfactory (I)

Optic (II)

Oculomotor (III)

Trochlear (IV)

Trigeminal (V)

Abducens (VI)

Facial (VII)

Vestibulocochlear (VIII)

Glossopharyngeal (IX)

Vagus (X)

Spinal Accessory (XI)

Hypoglossal (XII)

 

 

Physiology Lecture Outline                                          (Exam 3)

BIOL 123                                                                              (Fall '07)

 

 


9)  Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic Division

= Thoracolumbar

"Fight-or-Flight"

Adrenergic effects

Parasympathetic Division

= Craniosacral

"Rest & Digest"

Cholinergic effects

Dual Innervation

Control by higher CNS centers

 

 

10) Sensory Systems

General Sensory Concepts

Functional categories

Tonic vs. phasic responses

Sensory adaptation

Law of Specific Nerve Energies

Cutaneous Sensations

Types of receptors

Receptive fields & acuity

Lateral inhibition

Gustation

Taste Receptors

Taste Primaries

CNS Pathways

Nucleus of the Solitary Tract

Gustatory Cortex

Hypothalamus

Olfaction

Olfactory Receptors

CNS Pathways

Common Chemical Sense

Trigeminal nerve (CN V)

Irritant stimuli

Interactions with taste & smell

Equilibrium

Hair Cells

Stereocilia

Kinocilia

Tip Junctions

Endolymph

Saccule & Utricle

Maculae

Semicircular Ducts

Cristae

Vestibular Nucleus

Nystagmus & Vertigo

Hearing

Outer Ear

Pinna, Canal

Middle Ear

Tympanic Membrane

Malleus, Incus, Stapes

Tensor tympani & Stapedius

Auditory Tube

Cochlea

Vestibular Duct

Tympanic Duct

Cochlear Duct

Organ of Corti

Basilar Membrane

Tectorial Membrane

Hair Cell Rows

Endolymph

Auditory Pathways

Cochlear Nuclei

Inferior Colliculus

Medial Geniculate Nucleus

Auditory Cortex

Hearing Impairments

Conduction Deafness

Sensorineural Deafness

Vision

Fibrous Tunic

Cornea

Refraction

Vascular Tunic

Ciliary Body

Lens

Accommodation

Visual Acuity

Iris

Pupil Control

Aqueous Humor

Neural Tunic

Retinal layers

Phototransduction

Color Vision

CNS Pathways

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

Visual Cortex

Superior Colliculus

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

 

Physiology Lecture Outline                                           (Exam 4)

BIOL 123                                                                               (Fall '07)

 


11)  Endocrine System

Intercellular communication

Endocrine, Paracrine, Autocrine

Classes of hormones

Amino acid derivatives

Peptides

Lipids – steroids, eicosanoids

Mechanisms of action

Nuclear receptors:

steroid hormones

thyroxins (T3/T4)

G-protein activated:

adenylate cyclase

phosphodiesterase

phospholipase C

Pituitary gland

Neurohypophysis

Axons from hypothalamus

Supraoptic nucleus

Antidiuretic hormone

Paraventricular nucleus

Oxytocin

Adenohypophysis

Derived from gut tube

Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

TRHàTSHàT3/T4

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

CRHàACTHàsteroids

Gonadotropins

GnRHàFSH/LHàsteroids

Prolactin

PRF/PIHàProlactin

Growth hormone

GHRH/GHIHàGHàsomatomedins

act on liver

Adrenal gland

Medulla

Epinephrine

Cortex

Glucocorticoidds

Mineralocorticoids

Sex steroids


Thyroid gland

Follicles

TyrosineàT3/T4

Increase metabolism

Parafollicular cells

Calcitonin

Decrease [Ca++]

Parathyroid glands

Parathyriod hormone

Increase [Ca++]

Pancreas

Insulin – b cells

Decrease [sugar]

Glucagon – a cells

Increase [sugar]

Gonads

Testes

Seminiferous tubules

Spermatogenesis

Leydig cells

Testosterone

Ovaries

Follicular cells

Oogenesis

Estrogen

Corpus luteum

Progesterone

Menstrual cycle

 

12)  Muscle Tissue

Anatomy of skeletal muscle

Connective tissues

Tendon, epimysium, perimysium, endomysium

Skeletal muscle fibers

Sarcolemma

Transverse tubules

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Sarcomeres

I band

Z disc, actin

A band

H zone, M line, myosin

Filaments – actin/myosin


Contraction of sk. mm.

Sliding filament mechanism

Ca++, troponin, tropomyosin, myosin cross-bridges, ATP hydrolysis

Excitation-contraction coupling

AChàAPàCa++

Tension production

Length-tension relationship

Summationàtetanus

Recruitment

Energy use

ATP & creatine phosphate

Muscle fiber performance

Fast-twitch – white muscle

glycolyticàanaerobic

Slow-twitch – red muscle

oxidativeàaerobic

Cardiac muscle

intercalated discs

gap junctions

automatic rhythmic potentials

autonomic control

Smooth muscle

non-striated – no sarcomeres

dense bodies, calmodulin

myogenic contractions

Monosynaptic reflexes

Stretch reflex (knee-jerk)

Muscle Spindle Organ

Intrafusal & Extrafusal fibers

a & g motor neurons

Polysynaptic reflexes

Tendon reflexes (Golgi)

Withdrawal (flexor) reflexes

Crossed extensor reflexes

 

13) Heart & Circulation

Plasma

Water

Electrolytes

Proteins

Albumin

Globulins

Fibrinogen


Formed Elements of Blood

Erythrocytes

Hemoglobin

O2 carrying

Antigens & Blood Typing

Leukocytes

Phagocytic

Inflammation response

Platelets

Megakaryocytes

Clotting response

Cardiac Cycle

Pressure & Volume changes

Diastole / Systole

Heart sounds

Electric Activity of the Heart

Conducting system

Sinoatrial node

Atrioventricular node

AV bundle

Purkinje fibers

Electrocardiogram

P wave

Q-R-S complex

T wave

Blood vessels

Tunica interna, media, externa

Arteries, capillaries, veins

Atherosclerosis

Lymphatic vessels

 

14) Cardiac Output

CO = HR x SV

Heart rate

Autonomic innervation

Stroke volume

End-diastolic volume

Preload

Venous return

End-systolic volume

Contractility

Afterload