Check out the BHSU Biology Program

Welcome to BHSU Biology Program

Integrative Genomics Graduate Program

Integrative Genomics is an interdisciplinary graduate program that combines genomics, ecology, evolution, and physiology to better understand the evolutionary forces that have shaped the mechanisms that are important to species interactions in the wild. The program is designed to provide those seeking a Masters degree the necessary skills and concepts to work cooperatively with others in a research area that takes a systems-wide approach and incorporates an organism’s history and natural environment to understand the organization and expression of its many genes. Exposure to modern techniques and instrumentation in the laboratory and field prepares students for success in both academic and other biotechnology-related pursuits.

  • The program has two tracks:
    • Thesis track requires at least one satisfactory and relevant manuscript from original research for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
    • Non-thesis track substitutes an internship with a relevant biotech company or the equivalent (e.g., Environmental Protection Agency laboratory) and one course in business marketing and management.
  • All students enrolled in the program take 12 credits from the core curriculum, and at least 8 credits from the list of electives.
  • Start with a program Overview to learn more about this exciting opportunity.
  • Integrative Genomics Program Application Requirements can be found here..

 

 

Biological sciences, the study of living organisms and their relationship to the environment, provides a foundation for a variety of careers. Some scientists conduct basic research to increase the knowledge of living organisms, while those in applied research use this knowledge to develop new medicines, increase crop yields and improve the environment. Work is generally performed in a laboratory or outdoor field setting. Other biological science graduates work in management or administration, planning programs for food and drug testing or managing a botanical garden. Some work as consultants to business firms, sell chemicals or laboratory instruments, or write for technical publications.  

While most graduates work in a related occupation and eventually obtain an advanced degree, others choose another direction. Many careers do not require a specific major but rather a wide range of demonstrated skills and accomplishments. Regardless of your career choices, it is helpful to increase your marketability to employers through internships, responsible work experience, good grades and involvement in college activities. A bachelor's degree is sufficient for advanced technician jobs in the medical field, lab/research assistant positions, or testing and inspection jobs. An advanced degree is required for most other positions in the scientific field.

What Careers are Available to Biology Majors?

A Biology Major may work in several field of research, teaching, or biotechnology, genetics, microbiology, mycology, entomology, zoology, biomedical, marine/aquatic biology or systematic biology.  There are other careers also available in sales, extension services, technical writing, or as a lab worker or museum curator.

Who Employs Biology Majors?

As a biology major you could work for a number of different profit and nonprofit organizations and business or the government. Here is a list of just a few of them:

  • Secondary schools, Universities and Colleges
  • Clinics and Hospitals
  • Pharmaceutical, Biotech, and Chemical Companies
  • Public Health Agencies
  • Federal/State/Local Government Laboratories and Agencies
  • Medical Research Laboratories
  • Private Research Foundations
  • Agricultural Industries
  • Zoos, Museums, and Libraries
  • Food Manufacturers
  • Soap/Cosmetics Companies
  • U.S. Forest Service
  • Food & Drug Administration

Links:

 

Biology

Do you love exploring plants, animals, medicine and the world in which we live? The Black Hills State University biology program has an outstanding curriculum  and faculty supported by state-of-the-art facilities where you can experience great hands-on learning.

Earning your degree in biology will open the door to a variety of engaging careers. A biology graduate may pursue a career as a physician, physical therapist, pharmacist, marine biologist, forensic scientist and many more.

Why earn a biology degree from BHSU?

  • Experiential Learning: BHSU provides opportunities to work with real scientists on real research projects.
  • State-of-the-Art Facilities: The Life Sciences Laboratory is a new 24,896 sq. ft. building specifically designed for the natural sciences programs. BHSU also has a growth chamber, herbarium, scanning electron microscopy lab and many other labs/centers.
  • Involvement: Outside of the classroom, BHSU offers opportunities for involvement with biology-related organizations including Scientia and the Health Sciences Student Organization.
  • Premier Location: BHSU is located 20 miles from the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This close proximity to Sanford Lab combined with a high level of interest among faculty and staff creates opportunities for collaborative projects in the sciences.

Biology Major

The biology major is intended to give students an undergraduate education with an emphasis on several broad areas within the science of biology. It is strongly recommended that all Biology majors take Calculus, have one year of Physics, and minor in Chemistry. Computer science proficiency is highly recommended.

Required Core - 18 semester hours

  • 4 BIOL 151 General Biology I & 151L Lab (gen ed)
  • 4 BIOL 153 General Biology II & 153L Lab (gen ed)
  • 4 BIOL 371 Genetics & 371L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 373 Evolution & 373L Lab
  • 2 BIOL 490 Seminar

25 Restricted Elective - Elective courses shall be taken from two emphases, with at least two courses from one emphasis and the remainder from the other. Students must take the corresponding lab if applicable.

Environmental Biology Emphasis  

  • 4 BIOL 301 Plant Systematics & 301L Lab
  • 3 BIOL 302 Animal Behavior
  • 4 BIOL 311 Principles of Ecology & 311L Lab
  • 3 BIOL 321 Conservation of Natural Resources
  • 3 BIOL 355 Mammalogy & 355L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 357 Invertebrate Zoology & 357L Lab 
  • 4 BIOL 405 Entomology & 405L Lab
  • 3 BIOL 415 Mycology & 415L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 434 Herpetology & 434L Lab
  • 3 BIOL 437 Biometry
  • 3 BIOL 461 Agrostology & 461L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 462 Dendrology & Lab
  • 4 BIOL 463 Omithology & Lab
  • Must take BIOL 311 & 311L with this emphasis 

Cellular/Physiology Emphasis

  • 3 BIOL 317 Electron Microscopy & 317L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 325 Physiology & 325L Lab         
  • 4 BIOL 331 Microbiology & 331L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 343 Cell & Molecular Biol. & 343L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 381 Vertebrate Anatomy & 381L Lab 
  • 4 BIOL 422 Immunology
  • 4 BIOL 430 Neurobiology & 430L Lab
  • 3 BIOL 437 Biometry [Pre-req MATH 102 & 281]    
  • 4 BIOL 474 Ecological Genomics & Lab
  • Must take BIOL 343 & 343L with this emphasis

Gen Ed Requirements - 35 semester hours

  • MATH Gen Ed - Mathematics - 3 semester hours
  • Gen Ed - Social Science - satisfied by major - 6 semester hours
  • Gen Ed - Arts & Humanities - 6 semester hours
  • Gen Ed - Natural Science & Lab - 6-8 semester hours
  • ENGL 101 - Composition I
  • ENGL 201 - Composition II
  • SPCM 101 - Fundamentals of Speech
    or
  • SPCM 215 - Public Speaking
    or
  • SPCM 222 - Argumentation and Debate

* Global Requirement: depending on your selection, this requirement will satisfy 3 hours of either Social Science or Arts & Humanities requirements. Take 1 course from AIS/HIST 257, ANTH 210, ARTH 211/212/251, ENGL 211/212, GEOG 210, HIST 121/122/153, HUM 100, MCOM 151, POLS 141/250.

A minor is required with this major plus electives to total 120 hours, of which 36 hours must be 300-400 level courses.

Biology Major - Teaching

Required Core - 20 semester hours

  • 4 BIOL 151 General Biology I & 151L Lab (gen ed)
  • 4 BIOL 153 General Biology II & 153L Lab (gen ed)
  • 4 BIOL 371 Genetics & 371L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 373 Evolution & 373L Lab
  • 2 BIOL 490 Seminar
  • SEED 413 - 7 - 12 Science Methods

25 Restricted Electives - Elective courses shall be taken from two emphases, with at least two courses from one emphasis and the remainder from the other. Students must also take the corresponding lab if applicable.

Environmental Biology Emphasis
Must take BIOL 311 & 311L with this emphasis

  • BIOL 301 Plant Systematics & 301L Lab (4)
  • BIOL 302 Animal Behavior (3)
  • BIOL 311 Principles of Ecology & 311L Lab (4)
  • BIOL 321 Conservation (3)
  • BIOL 355 Mammalogy & 355L Lab (3)
  • BIOL 357 Invertebrate Zoology & 357L Lab (4)
  • BIOL 405 Entomology & 405L Lab (4)
  • BIOL 415 Mycology & 415L Lab (3)
  • BIOL 434 Herpetology & 434L Lab (3)
  • BIOL 437 Biometry (3)
  • BIOL 461 Agrostology & 461L Lab (3)
  • BIOL 462 Dendrology & Lab (4)
  • BIOL 463 Omithology & Lab (4)

Cellular/Physiology Emphasis
Must take BIOL 343 & 343L with this emphasis

  • BIOL 317 Electron Microscopy & 317L Lab (3)
  • BIOL 325 Physiology & 325L Lab (4)
  • BIOL 437 Biometry (3) [Pre-req MATH 102 & 281]
  • BIOL 331 Microbiology & 331L Lab (4)
  • BIOL 343 Cell & Molecular Biol. & 343L Lab (4)
  • BIOL 381 Vertebrate Anatomy & 381L Lab (4)
  • BIOL 422 Immunology
  • BIOL 430 Neurobiology & 430L Lab (4)
  • BIOL 437 Biometry
  • BIOL 460 Evolutionary & Ecological Plant Phys/Lab (4)
  • BIOL 474 Ecological Genomics & Lab (4)

Pre-Professional Teaching Core - 18 semester hours

  • 2 EDFN 338 Foundations of American Education
  • 1 EDFN 295 Practicum: Pre-Admission Teaching
  • 3 EPSY 302 Educational Psychology
  • 3 EPSY 428 Child & Adolescent Development 
  • 3 INED 411 South Dakota Indian Studies
  • 3 PSYC 101 General Psychology (gen ed)
  • 3 SPED 100 - Intro to Persons with Exceptionalities

Professional Secondary Ed Teaching Core - 26 semester hours

  • 3 EDFN 365 Computer Based Technology & Learning
  • 3 EDFN 375 Methods of Technology Integration
  • 3 EDFN 440 Classroom Management
  • 2 MLED 480 Middle Level Methods
  • 3 SEED 408 Plan, Manage & Assess the 7-12 Diverse Classroom 
  • 3 SEED 450 Reading and Content Literacy
  • 1 SEED 495 Practicum
  • 3 EDFN 475 Human Relations
  • 9 SEED 488 7-12 Student Teaching

Gen Ed Requirements - 30 semester hours

  • MATH Gen Ed - Mathematics - 3 semester hours
  • Gen Ed - Social Science - 6 semester hours
  • Gen Ed - Arts & Humanities - 6 semester hours
  • Gen Ed - Natural Science & Lab - 6-8 semester hours
  • ENGL 101 - Composition I
  • ENGL 201 - Composition II
  • SPCM 101 - Fundamentals of Speech
    or
  • SPCM 215 - Public Speaking
    or
  • SPCM 222 - Argumentation and Debate

* Global Requirement: depending on your selection, this requirement will satisfy 3 hours of either Social Science or Arts & Humanities requirements. Take 1 course from AIS/HIST 257, ANTH 210, ARTH 211/212/251, ENGL 211/212, GEOG 210, HIST 121/122/153, HUM 100, MCOM 151, POLS 141/250

A minor is required with this major plus electives to total 120 hours, of which 36 hours must be 300-400 level courses.

Minor in Biology - 24 hours

  • 4 BIOL 151 General Biology I & 151L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 153 General Biology II & 153L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 343 Cell and Molecular Biology & 343L Lab
  • or
  • 4 BIOL 371 Genetics & 371L Lab
  • and 
  • 12 Semester Hours 300/400 BIOL Electives

Minor in Biology - Teaching - 24 hours

  • 4 BIOL 151 General Biology I & 151L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 153 General Biology II & 153L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 311 Principles of Ecology & 311L Lab
  • 4 BIOL 331 Microbiology & 331L Lab
  • 3 BIOL 371 Genetics & 371L Lab
  • 3 BIOL 300/400 level Elective
  • 2 SEED 413 7-12 Science Methods

Career Opportunities

Career Opportunities:

Biology majors are able to find careers in a variety of fields:

  • Physician
  • Dentist
  • Optometrist
  • Nurse
  • Teaching
  • Public Health Agencies
  • Medical Research Laboratories
  • Zoos

 Learn more about careers


Biology Facilities

The Biology program at BHSU is designed to give you a broad background and hands-on training in Biology with cutting-edge laboratory facilities. This program prepares you through a rigorous curriculum for advanced study in graduate or professional programs, or for a career in the science or science education.

 

We encourage you to conduct directed research with our faculty members. BHSU provides valuable opportunities to learn science while working with scientists on real research projects. Interacting closely with faculty through their courses and through one-on-one advising and mentoring.

 

BHSU’s science faculties are committed to providing the best education possible, and our science students have an outstanding record of accomplishment.           

The Life Sciences Laboratory

A new 24,896 sq.ft science building for Biology and Chemistry has now been finished! This new facility is necessary in part due to the dramatic growth in the science program at BHSU in the last decade. This new Biology and Chemistry building is home to state of the art teaching and research laboratories. The price tag for the new building was $8.2 million, and was funded in part by South Dakota House Bill 1085 which authorized $74.5 million in state bond issued to finance construction, renovation, and modernization of 11 higher education science facility and laboratory projects. The new building meets the specifications for LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification at the silver level. BHSU has made a commitment to sustainability and is incorporating components to ensure the buildings are LEED certified. With this project, 90 percent of the materials are being re-used or recycled.

The new science building is home to the Center for the Conservation of Biological Resources (CCBR), a plant research laboratory, two chemistry research laboratories, and six new teaching laboratories for biology and chemistry.

DNA Sequencer

The DNA Sequencer is an integral part of BHSU's Genetics Laboratory. This is a four capillary sequencer, model 3100 Avant Genetic Analyzer.

GCMS Machine

A gas chromatograph (GC) is used to separate any quantitative compounds that are volatile; that is, materials that can be turned into gases. Typically, GC's are used for characterize very small amounts (1 or 2 micrograms) of organic compounds. They have found routine use in drug testing, pesticide research, and many other areas of trace analysis. We have two Agilent 6890N GC systems, both split/splitless injectors and FID detectors. One of these systems has an additional Agilent 5973 Quadrupolar Mass sensitive detector. The FID detectors (Flame Ionization Detectors) are very sensitive detectors that, essentially, burn the material as it comes off the GC column to turn into ions and then detects those ions. With this detector you can observe any material that can be burned, but you cannot directly identify what it is. The mass sensitive detector is a complete quadrupolar mass spectrometer that determines the mass spectrum of each compound instantaneously as it comes off the GC column. The mass spectrum is then used to identify each compound. This detector is not quite as sensitive as the FID detector, but the ability to identify each compound as it comes off the column makes it a powerful analytical tool.

Growth Chamber

The growth chamber is a controlled environment in which plants can be grown. During certain experimentation with plants, a person may control the amount of daylight, the temperature and other environmental factors.

Herbarium

The BHSU Herbarium, which has been housing plant specimens for research and teaching since the founding of the Dakota Territorial Normal School in 1883, has approximately 35,000 plant specimens. The Augustana College Herbarium, formerly located in Sioux Falls, has recently been added to our collection.

The herbarium, essentially a “library” of plants, preserves most specimens pressed, dried and mounted on archival paper accompanied by a label that provides the scientific name of the plant and pertinent collection data. In addition to plant specimens, the Herbarium also holds approximately 3,000 fungal specimens thanks to the recent research efforts of emeritus faculty member Audrey Gabel. The BHSU Herbarium is home to one of the largest collections of Miocene age (approximately 5 to 24 million years before the present) plant fossils from the Great Plains of North America. With more than 10,000 fossils from throughout the Great Plains, the fossils are a key to an understanding of the environment that created the Great Plains.

The Herbarium then obtained a major grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to database all of the plants from “West River” South Dakota and eastern Wyoming from the BHSU Herbarium and 15 additional herbaria.  The grant will provide a web-accessible database with all label data from over 100,000 specimens by 2009.  The NSF grant also enabled the BHSU Herbarium to double the amount of specimen holdings through the purchase and installation of a mobile storage compactor system. The Herbarium is a vital resource for the community. Staff members are often called upon to identify plants for government agencies, ranchers, gardeners, USDA Forest Service staff, Game Fish and Parks Department staff, county weed control officers, and curious citizens. Herbarium staff members are available to give presentations to a wide variety of groups including civic organizations, visiting student groups, USDA Forest Service groups or other audiences.

Visit the Herbarium Site

HPLC Machine

An HPLC system is a High Pressure Liquid Chromatography system that is used to characterize and purify various liquid samples. Black Hills State University's HPLC system is used primarily in Dr. Zehfus' fisheries research, where samples from fish tissues are injected onto the machine to purify and quantitate the thiamine, thiamine monophosphate, and thiamine pyrophosphate found in these tissues. The HPLC system has also been used to purify peptides synthesized as part of Dr. Zehfus' hydrogen bond project. This instrument is available for use in Chemistry 434, Instrumental Analysis. The Waters HPLC system consists of two 501 pumps, a 486 tunable absorbance detector, a 474 scanning fluorescence detector, and a 717 autosampler so the machine can run many samples unattended. The entire system is controlled by a computer using the Waters Millennium software package. Other added components to this system include an Eppendorf TC-45 Temperature control unit and a CH-30 column heater unit. Solvents are degassed using an Alltech NO-OX vacuum degassing system. Even though this machine is primarily used in the Chemistry Department, the Biology Department may use it to supplement research that they are conducting.

IR Machine

An Infrared Spectrometer determines the wavelength and absorbance of a sample in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared spectrometers are a major workhorse instrument for the analysis of organic compounds for two reasons. First, the analysis is fast and easy to perform, and second, every organic compound has a unique infrared spectrum that allows any compound to be uniquely identified. Our instrument is a Matteson Genesis II FTIR that was purchased in the summer of 2001. This machine has been incorporated into labs in Survey, General Chemistry, Organic, and Analytical classes. Perhaps the most fun lab is in the survey class, where the students fill a plastic garbage bag with auto exhaust, then transfer the exhaust gases into a gas cell, and analyze the gas for CO and CO 2 content using the IR. This is another machine that is mainly used in the chemistry department, but also is integral to some research in the biology department.

Molecular Biology Labs

The Molecular Genetics Laboratories at Black Hills State University are equipped for DNA sequencing and genotype analysis. The available equipment includes 5 thermocyclers for PCR, a Fotodyne digital imaging system for visualizing and documenting electrophoretic gels, a Genequant microcell ultraspectrophometer used primarily for quantification of DNA samples, 2 automated genetic analyzers (ABI 310 and ABI 3100), as well as other standard laboratory equipment such as micropipetters, centrifuges etc. 

The Molecular Genetics Laboratories are also equipped for genomics research and data collection. The available equipment includes an ABI 7000 Sequence Detection System for real-time PCR and gene expression analysis, a MJ Research Opticon II Real Time PCR System for gene expression analysis, and a GenePix 4200 Array Scanner for microarray analysis.

Scanning Electron Microscopy Lab

The Scanning Electron Microscopy Lab (SEM Lab) includes a JOEL 5600LV scanning electron microscope that is capable of producing low to high magnification images of nearly any type of material that can be inserted into a microscope.  It produces excellent images (either digital or on film) and has the capacity to allow the user to view specimens in low vacuum environments, increasing the range of samples that can be observed.  Linked to the microscope is an Oxford INCA energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer that allows elemental analysis of specimens while they are being imaged.

BHSU offers the only electron microscopy course in the region that provides undergraduate students with an opportunity to use these sophisticated research tools.  The primary users of the microscope are undergraduate students conducting research with BHSU faculty members.

CCBR logo Black Hills State University's genetic and genomic research facility

BHSU Science Societies:

Scientia: Encourages students to participate in the sciences by stimulating their interest in and their understanding of science and related fields. Advisor: Dr. Bergmann

HSSO - Health Sciences Student Organization: Supports students interested in studying various medical and health fields. Prepares students for application to professional schools.  Advisor: Dr. Lamb

National Societies:

American Society of Plant Taxonomists: The American Society of Plant Taxonomists promotes research and teaching in the taxonomy, systematics, and phylogeny of vascular and nonvascular plants.




Botanical Society of America: The Botanical Society of America exists to promote botany, the field of basic science dealing with the study and inquiry into the form, function, diversity, reproduction, evolution, and uses of plants and their interactions within the biosphere. To accomplish this mission, the objectives of The Society are to: sustain and provide improved formal and informal education about plants; encourage basic plant research; provide expertise, direction, and position statements concerning plants and ecosystems; and foster communication within the professional botanical community, and between botanists and the rest of humankind through publications, meetings, and committees.

Paleontological Society: The Paleontological Society is an international organization devoted exclusively to the advancement of the science of paleontology through the dissemination of research by publication and meetings.





The American Society for Cell Biology: The American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) was founded in 1960 to bring the varied facets of cell biology together. The Society's objective is to provide for the exchange of scientific knowledge in the area of cell biology. It does so through the scholarly dissemination of research at its Annual Meeting and in its publications, and strives to ensure the future of basic scientific research by providing training and development opportunities for students and young investigators, and also by keeping Congress and the American public informed on the importance of biomedical research.

American Association for the Advancement of Science:  The American Association for the Advancement of Science, "Triple A-S" (AAAS), is the world's largest general scientific society, publisher of Science.

National Science Teachers Association:  The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), founded in 1944 and headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, is the largest organization in the world committed to promoting excellence and innovation in science teaching and learning for all. NSTA's current membership of more than 53,000 includes science teachers, science supervisors, administrators, scientists, business and industry representatives, and others involved in and committed to science education.

American Society for Microbiology: The American Society for Microbiology is the oldest and largest single life science membership organization in the world. Membership has grown from 59 scientists in 1899 to over 42,000 members today located throughout the world. ASM represents 25 disciplines of microbiological specialization plus a division for microbiology educators.

Animal Behavior Society:  The Animal Behavior Society is a non-profit scientific society, founded to encourage and promote the study of animal behavior. ABS members are from all over the world, but primarily from North, Central, and South America. Membership is open to those interested in the study of animal behavior.




Entomological Society of America:  The Entomological Society of America (ESA) is the largest organization in the world serving the professional and scientific needs of entomologists and people in related disciplines. Founded in 1889, ESA today has more than 6,000 members. This number includes educators, extension personnel, consultants, students, researchers, and scientists from agricultural departments, health agencies, private industries, colleges and universities, and state and federal governments.

International Union for the Study of Social Insects:  The International Union for the Study of Social Insects was formed to facilitate communication among social insect researchers worldwide.  IUSSI stands for the International Union for the Study of Social Insects. They are a worldwide scientific society devoted to research on social arthropods, including: bees, ants, termites, and wasps.



The American Institute of Biological Sciences: The American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) is dedicated to advancing biological research and education for the welfare of society. AIBS seeks to facilitate communication and interactions among biologists, professional biological societies, biological and other scientific disciplines, as well as to serve and advance the interests of biology in the broader scientific community and in other components of society.

Here at Black Hills State University we are actively engaged in research throughout the year. If you are interested in doing research contact one of the faculty members with the same interest to propose your plan.

Posted Research Projects:

Other Student Research:

  • Brandi Wood traveled in Hawaii with Dr. Steve Anderson to assess the distribution of pahoehoe lava flow surface morphology at Kilauea volcano, and used the results as the basis for comparison to similar flows on the Martian surface. Brandi coauthored a paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science conference and two others that were published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Brandi Wood was funded by a Nelson Scholarship.       

Faculty Research

    Black Hills State University's Faculty is very active in research throughout the year. With their broad range of research interests, the faculty can assist and guide students in the development their own research. If a student is interested in doing research, they should contact one of the faculty members with the same interest to propose their plan.  
  • David Bergmann: Bacterial oxidation of ammonia and methane, microbial ecology.
  • Holly Downing: Behavior, nest construction, and glandular development in social insects.
  • Audrey Gabel: Survey of Black Hills fungi; mycology
  • Mark L. Gabel: Flora of the Black Hills, systematics of Poaceae, Miocene flora of the Great Plains
  • Charles F. Lamb: Comparative vertebrate neuroanatomy and the ecology of aquatic insects.
  • Shane K. Sarver: Evolutionary genetics
  • David Siemens: Plant-insect interactions, plant ecology, ecological genetics, secondary plant metabolism
  • Brian E. Smith: Conservation biology and herpetology.
  • Tamara Lawson: Growth and development of insects.

Biology wth Chemistry Minor: 4-YEAR PLAN A minor is required with this major plus electives to total 120 hours, of which 36 hours must be 300-400 level courses. The Required Core is highly recommended to be taken as listed. This will allow you to fulfill your General Education Requirements for the University and progress through the Biology Program efficiently.


FRESHMAN YEAR

Fall Semester
BIOL 151/L General Biology I & Lab (pre-req for BIOL 153, 311, etc.)
MATH 102, 115, 121 or 123 (gen ed & pre-req for CHEM 112, 114, & MATH 281)

Spring Semester
BIOL 153/L General Biology II & Lab** (pre-req for BIOL 301, etc.)
MATH 281 Introduction to Statistics (pre-req for BIOL 311, 371, 437)


SOPHOMORE YEAR

Fall Semester
BIOL 371/L Genetics & Lab (pre-req for BIOL 474)
CHEM 112/L General Chemistry I & Lab*
Electives - 3-6 credits

Spring Semester
BIOL 317/L, 321**, 331/L**, 381/L**, 405/L**^^, 415/L, 422**^, 430/L**^^, 437**^^, 462/L, or 463/L
BIOL 373/L Evolution & Lab
CHEM 114/L General Chemistry II** (pre-req for CHEM 326 & 332)


JUNIOR YEAR

Fall Semester
Choose 1: BIOL 301/L*^, 317/L, 325/L*, 355/L*^^, 357/L*^^, 415/L, 434/L*^^, 461/L*^^, 462/L, 463/L, or 474/L*
BIOL 311/L Principles of Ecology* or BIOL 343/L Cell and Molecular Biology & Lab*
CHEM 326/L Organic Chemistry I & Lab* (pre-req for CHEM 328 & 464)

Spring Semester
Choose 1: BIOL 317/L, 321**, 331/L**, 381/L**, 405/L**^^, 415/L, 422**^, 430/L**^^, 437**^^, 462/L, or 463/L
CHEM 328/L Organic Chemistry II & Lab** (pre-req for CHEM 464)
Electives - 3-6 credits


SENIOR YEAR

Fall Semester
BIOL 301/L*^, 317/L, 325/L*, 355/L*^^, 357/L*^^, 415/L, 434/L*^, 461/L*^^, 462/L, 463/L, or 474/L*
CHEM 332/L Analytical Chemistry & Lab* Or CHEM-464/L Biochemistry I & Lab*
Electives - 3-6 credits

Spring Semester
Choose 1: BIOL 317/L, 321**, 331/L**, 381/L**, 405/L**^^, 415/L, 422**^, 430/L**^^, 437**^^, 462/L, or 463/L
BIOL 490 Seminar
Electives - 6-9 credits (if needed to meet 120 credits)



Key:
* Fall Only Classes
** Spring Only Classes
^ Even Years
^^ Odd Years

Biology wth Other Minor: 4-YEAR PLAN A minor is required with this major plus electives to total 120 hours, of which 36 hours must be 300-400 level courses. The Required Core is highly recommended to be taken as listed. This will allow you to fulfill your General Education Requirements for the University and progress through the Biology Program efficiently.


FRESHMAN YEAR

Fall Semester
BIOL 151/L General Biology I & Lab (pre-req for BIOL 153, 311, etc.)
MATH 102, 115, 121 or 123 (gen ed & pre-req for CHEM 112, 114, & MATH 281)

Spring Semester
BIOL 153/L General Biology II & Lab** (pre-req for BIOL 301, etc.)
MATH 281 Introduction to Statistics (pre-req for BIOL 311, 371, 437)


SOPHOMORE YEAR

Fall Semester
Choose 1: BIOL 301/L*^, 317/L, 325/L*, 355/L*^^, 357/L*^^, 415/L, 434/L*^^, 461/L*^^, 462/L, 463/L, or 474/L*
BIOL 371/L Genetics & Lab (pre-req for BIOL 474)
Minor/Electives - 3 credits

Spring Semester
Choose 1: BIOL 317/L, 321**, 331/L**, 381/L**, 405/L**^^, 415/L, 422**^, 430/L**^^, 437**^^, 462/L, or 463/L
BIOL 373/L Evolution & Lab
Minor/Electives - 6 credits


JUNIOR YEAR

Fall Semester
BIOL 311/L Principles of Ecology* or BIOL 343/L Cell and Molecular Biology & Lab*
Minor/Electives - 9 credits

Spring Semester
Choose 1: BIOL 317/L, 321**, 331/L**, 381/L**, 405/L**^^, 415/L, 422**^, 430/L**^^, 437**^^, 462/L, or 463/L
Minor/Electives - 6-9 credits


SENIOR YEAR

Fall Semester
Choose 1: BIOL 301/L*^, 317/L, 325/L*, 355/L*^^, 357/L*^^, 415/L, 434/L*^, 461/L*^^, 462/L, 463/L, or 474/L*
Minor/Electives - 9 credits

Spring Semester
Choose 1: BIOL 317/L, 321**, 331/L**, 381/L**, 405/L**^^, 415/L, 422**^, 430/L**^^, 437**^^, 462/L, or 463/L
BIOL 490 Seminar
Electives - 9 credits



Key:
* Fall Only Classes
** Spring Only Classes
^ Even Years
^^ Odd Years