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Word Origins word lists

Word Origins
BIOL 286
Lecture Notes
 
1) Introduction
Word Parts:      1) root – fundamental meaning
                        2) prefix – modifies root at beginning
                        3) suffix – modifies root at end
                        4) combining vowel – usually “o”, sometimes “i”
 
Roots:              arthr/o – joint (Ch.14)
                        hepat/o – liver (Ch.11)
                        ven/o – vein (Ch.6)                   (also: phleb/o) (Ch.10)
                        oste/o – bone (Ch.14)
 
Prefixes:           intra-    within (Ch.4)                (also: endo-) (vs: ex-, exo-, extra-)
                        sub-     under (Ch.4)                 (also: hypo-) (vs: super-, supra-, hyper-)
 
Suffixes:            …ad - toward
…ic – pertaining to       (also: -ac, -al, -ar, -ary, -eal, -iac, -ial, -ous)
                        …itis – inflammation (Ch.5)
                        …ion - state of
                        …logy – study of (Ch. 2)
                        …logist – one who studies (Ch. 2)
                        …pathy – disease (Ch. 2)
 
 
 

2) Anatomical Planes & Directions (Ch. 3)
 
Directions:        cephal/ic – pertaining to head    (Ch. 9)             (= toward top)
                        super/ior – above
 
                        caud/al – pertaining to tail                                  (= toward feet)
                        infer/ior – below
 
                        anter/ior – before, in front of (Ch.9)                  (= toward front)
ventr/al – pertaining to underside
 
poster/ior – after, behind (Ch. 9)                       (= toward back)
                        dors/al – pertaining to back
 
                        med/ial – pertaining to middle               
                        later/al – pertaining to side
                        proxim/al – pertaining to near
                        dist/al – pertaining to apart
 
 
Planes:              sagitt/al – pertaining to arrow (divides body into right & left halves)
                        front/al – pertaining to front (divides front from back)
                                    (= coronal – pertaining to crown)
                                    (= horizontal – pertaining to horizon)
                        trans/verse – turn across (divides top from bottom)
 
 
Prefixes:           bi- two                                     Suffixes:            -ad - toward
                        uni- one                                                            -ion – act or state of
                        contra- opposite                                               -ior – pertaining to
                        ipsi- same
                        hemi- half
 
 
Abdominal regions:      
hypochondriac
epigastric
hypochondriac
lumbar
umbilical
lumbar
iliac
hypogastric
iliac
 
 
Other terms:     ex/tens/ion – stretch away
                        flex/ion – bend
                        ad/duct/ion – lead toward
                        ab/duct/ion – lead away
                        in/vers/ion – turn in
                        e/vers/ion – turn out
afferent – carry toward
                        efferent – carry away

bi/lateral - two sides (Ch.12)
uni/lateral - one side
ipsi/lateral - same side
contra/lateral - other side
hemi/lateral - half side (Ch.11)



3) Body (Ch. 2)
somat/o – body (also: soma)
viscer/o – internal organs
system/o – system (= to place together)
organ/o – organ
hist/o – tissue
aden/o - gland
epitheli/o – epithelium (= laid upon)
fibr/o - fibrous tissue (= fiber)
lip/o – fat
my/o – muscle
neur/o – nerve
sarc/o – connective tissue (= flesh)
cyt/o – cell (= hollow space)
kary/o – nucleus (= a nut)
 
related roots:
path/o – disease (suffering)
carcin/o – cancer (also: cancer/o)(= crab)
onc/o – tumor
eti/o – cause (of disease)
iatr/o – physician (medicine)
gno/o – knowledge
rhabd/o – striated, rod-shaped
lei/o – smooth
 
color:
chrom/o – color
cyan/o – blue
chlor/o – green
erythr/o – red (also: rubr/o)
leuk/o – white (also: alb/i)
melan/o – black (also: nigr/i)
xanth/o – yellow (also: lute/o)
 

prefixes:
dia- through, complete
dys- abnormal, difficult
hyper- above, excessive
hypo- below, deficient
meta- after, change
neo- new
pro- before
 
suffixes:
-gen - agent that produces
-genesis - origin
-genic - producing
-logy - study of
-logist - one who studies
-osis - abnormal condition
-sis - condition, state of
-plasia - formation, a growth
-plasm - growth, substance
-cyte - cell
-oid - resembling
-oma - tumor
(-sarcoma - malignant tumor)
-pathy - disease
-stasis - control, stop
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4) Integument
integument = a covering
derm/o - skin (also: dermat/o, cutane/o)
kerat/o - horny   (also: corn/i)
melan/o - black
sudoriferous -  “sweat””producing”
sebaceous - “pert. to””fat or grease”
hidr/o - sweat   (also: sud/o)
seb/o - oil (sebum)
trich/o - hair
onych/o - nail (also: ungu/o)
 
Related:
aden/o - gland
aut/o - self
bi/o - life
coni/o - dust
crypt/o - hidden
fibr/o - fibrous tissue
heter/o - other   (vs: hom/o, home/o)
myc/o - fungus
necr/o - death
pachy/o - thick
rhytid/o - wrinkle
staphyl/o - grape-like clusters
strept/o - twisted chains
xer/o - dry

 
Prefixes:
epi- on, over
intra- within
para- beside, around
per- through
peri- surrounding
sub- under, below
 
Suffixes:
-tome - cutting instrument
from tom/o - to cut
-tomy - incision (Ch. 5)
-ectomy - excision
-stomy - artificial opening (Ch. 5)
-ia - abnormal state
-itis - inflammation
-malacia - softening
-opsy - to view
-rrhea - excessive flow
-rrhagia - rapid blood flow (Ch. 5)
-phagia - eating
-plasty - surgical repair
-coccus - berry-shaped
-a – a noun ending
 
 
 
 



5) Respiratory System
adenoid/o - adenoids (gland resembling)
alveol/o - alveolus (pit)
bronch/i - bronchus (windpipe)
bronchiol/o - bronchiole (small bronch.)
diaphragmat/o - diaphragm
(across partition)
epiglott/o - epiglottus (upon tongue)
laryng/o - larynx (box)
lob/o - lobe (capsule)
nas/o - nose (also: rhin/o, rostr/o)
pharyng/o - pharynx (ravine)
pleur/o - pleura (side, rib)
pneum/o - lung/air (breathe)
pneumat/o - “
pneumon/o - “
pulmon/o - lung
sinus/o - sinus (hollow)
sept/o - septum (fence)
thorac/o - thorax (breastplate)
tonsill/o - tonsil (mooring stick)
trache/o - trachea (windpipe)
 
related:
atel/o - imperfect (not complete)
hem/o - blood
hemat/o - “
muc/o - mucus (slime)
orth/o - straight
ox/i, ox/o - oxygen (sour producer)
py/o - pus
somn/o - sleep
spir/o - breathe
mediastinum - “standing””middle”
capn/o – CO2 (smoke)
dem/o - people

prefixes:
a-, an- without
endo- within
eu- normal
pan- all, total (pandemic vs. epidemic)
poly- many
re- back, again
 
suffixes:
-algia - pain
-ar, -ary - pert. to
-capnia - CO2 (smoke)
-cele - protrusion
-centesis - surgical puncture
-eal - pert. to
-ectasis - dilation, expansion
-emia - blood condition
-gram - a record
-graph - instrument to record (Ch.10)
-graphy - act of recording
-meter - instrument to measure
-metry - act of measuring
-rrhagia - rapid blood flow
-stomy - artificial opening
-tomy - incision
-oxia - oxygen
-pexy - suspension, surgical fixation
-phonia - sound (voice)
-pnea - breathing
-scope - instrument to view
-scopic - pert. to visual examination
-scopy - visual examination
-spasm - invol. muscle contraction
-stenosis - constriction
-thorax - chest
 



6) Urinary System
cyst/o - bladder, sac
vesic/o - “
nephr/o - kidney
ren/o - “
glomerul/o - glomerulus (= ball of thread)
meat/o - opening (= to pass)
pyel/o - renal pelvis
ureter/o - ureter
urethr/o - urethra
 
related:
albumin/o - albumin
azot/o - nitrogen
blast/o - germ cell (= bud)
glyc/o, glycos/o - sugar (= sweet)
hydr/o - water
lith/o - stone
noct/i - night
olig/o - few, scanty
son/o - sound
tom/o - cut
trachel/o - neck (Ch. 8)
ur/o, urin/o - urine
ven/o - vein
 
suffixes:
-esis - condition of
-iasis - “
-lysis - loosening, separating
-megaly - enlargement
-rrhaphy - suturing
-ptosis - drooping, sagging
-tripsy - surgical crushing
-trophy - nourishment, development
-uria - urine condition
 


7-8) Reproductive System
Male:
balan/o - glans penis (= acorn)
epididym/o - epididymis (= upon twins)
orch/o - testis, testicle
orchi/o - “
orchid/o - “
test/o - “
prostat/o - prostate gland
(= stand before)
vas/o - vessel, duct
vesicul/o - seminal vesicle
(= little bladder)
andr/o - male
sperm/o - sperm (= seed)
spermat/o - “
genit/o - to beget
 
prefixes:
peri- surrounding (outer)
trans- through, across, beyond
 
suffixes;
-atresia - occlusion, closure
-ial - pertaining to
-ism - state of
-salpinx - Fallopian (uterine) tube
(= trumpet)

Female:
arche/o - first, beginning
cervic/o - cervix (= neck)
trachel/o -     “
colp/o - vagina (= scabbard)
vagin/o - “
culd/o - cul-de-sac
vulv/o - vulva
episi/o - “
gyn/o - female
gynec/o - “
hymen/o - hymen
(Greek god of marriage)
hyster/o - uterus
metr/o, metr/i - “
uter/o - “
mamm/o - breast
mast/o - “
men/o - menstruation (moon)
oophor/o - ovary (= egg-bearer)
perine/o - perineum
(= around place of worship)
salping/o - Fallopian tube (= trumpet)
 
trivia:
penis à pendare = to hang down
also… clava = club, gladius = sword, ramus = branch, vomer = plow
condom à condere = to hide
ejaculate - throw out
herpes - creeping
gonorrhea - seed - discharge
syphilis - swine - loving
orgasm à orgasmos = softening through kneeding
orgao = swell with lust
 


9) Obstetrics / Neonatology
amni/o - amnion (amnos = lamb)
amnion/o - “
chori/o - chorion (= skin, leather)
embry/o - embryo (within – bud)
fet/o - fetus (feo = bring forth)
gravid/o - pregnant (gravis = heavy)
cyes/i -            “
lact/o - milk
nat/o - birth
par/o - to bear (parturio = bring forth)
part/o -     “
puerper/o - childbirth
omphal/o - umbilicus, navel
cephal/o - head
esophag/o - esophagus (carry one’s food)
pelv/i - pelvis (pella = dish)
prim/i - first
pseud/o - false
pylor/o - pyloris (pulore = gatekeeper)
 
prefixes:
ante- before (also: pre- )
micro- small
multi- many
nulli- none
post- after
 
suffixes:
-rrhexis - rupture
-tocia - birth, labor
-e - noun ending
-is -     “
-us -      “
-cyesis - pregnancy
-amnios - amnion
-partum - birth, labor
 
 

10) Cardiovascular System
angi/o - vessel
aort/o - aorta (= great artery)
arteri/o - artery (= windpipe)
atri/o - atrium (= vestibule)
cardi/o - heart
coron/o - “      (= crown)
lymph/o - lymph (= water)
phleb/o - vein
plasm/o - plasma (= something molded)
splen/o - spleen (also: lien/o)
thym/o - thymus
valv/o - valve
valvul/o - “
ventricul/o - ventricle (= little belly)
 

related terms:
ather/o - yellowish plaque
(= corn beard)
bacteri/o - bacteria
ech/o - sound (= reverberation)
electr/o - electricity
isch/o - deficiency, blockage
sphygm/o - pulse
steth/o - chest
therm/o - heat
thromb/o - coagulation, clot
man/o - sparse


 
prefixes:
brady- slow
tachy- fast
 
suffixes:
-ac - pertaining to
-apheresis - removal
-crit - to separate
-graph - instrument to record
-odynia - pain
-penia - abnormal reduction
-poiesis - formation
-sclerosis - hardening
 

11) Digestive System
mouth:
or/o - mouth
stomat/o - "
cheil/o - lip
gloss/o - tongue
lingu/o - "
gingiv/o - gum
palat/o - palate
uvul/o - uvula (= grape)
sial/o - saliva
dent/o - tooth (also: odont/o)
 
stomach:
abdomin/o - abdomen (= hide)
celi/o -             "           (=belly)
lapar/o -          "           (= soft)
peritone/o - peritoneum (= stretch upon)
esophag/o - esophagus (Ch.9)
(= carry one's food)
gastr/o - stomach (= mouth)
antr/o - antrum (= cave)
pylor/o - pylorus (= gate-keeper) (Ch. 9)
 
intestines:
enter/o - intestines (= insides)
duoden/o - duodenum (= 12 each)
jejun/o - jejunum (= empty)
ile/o - ileum (= to roll)
col/o - colon (also: colon/o)
cec/o - cecum (= blind)
appendic/o – appendix (= hang from)
sigmoid/o - sigmoid colon (= S-like)
rect/o - rectum (= straight)
proct/o - "
an/o - anus
diverticul/o - diverticulum
(= blind pouch)
herni/o - hernia (= sprout)
polyp/o - polyp (= many feet)
 

others:
hepat/o - liver (Ch. 1)
chol/e - bile, gall
cholecyst/o - gall bladder
cholangi/o - bile duct
choledoch/o - common bile duct
pancreat/o - pancreas (= all flesh)
peritone/o - peritoneum
(=stretch around)
 
suffix: -pepsia - digestion
 
 
prefix: hemi- half



12) Eye & 13) Ear
Eye:           
blephar/o – eyelid
conjunctiv/o – conjunctiva
cor/o & core/o – pupil (cor=heart)
pupill/o – pupil (pupa=doll)
corne/o – cornea (corneus=horny)
kerat/o –    “     (keras=horn)
dacry/o – tear, tear duct
lacrim/o –    “
irid/o & iri/o – iris
(Greek goddess of rainbow)
ocul/o – eye
ophthalm/o – “
opt/o – vision (optikos=sight)
retin/o – retina (fine net)
scler/o – sclera (=hard)
cry/o – cold
dipl/o – double, two
phot/o – light
ton/o – tension, pressure
(teino=stretch)
prefix:
bi- bin- two
 
suffixes:
-ician - one who
-opia – vision (condition)
-phobia – abnormal fear of
-philia - love of
-plegia – paralysis
 

Ear:
acou/o – hearing
audi/o - “
aur/i & aur/o – ear
ot/o -     “
labyrinth/o – labyrinth (=maze)
mastoid/o – mastoid (breast-like)
myring/o – tympanic membrane,
eardrum (meninx=membrane)
tympan/o – “ (tympanon=drum)
staped/o – stapes (= stirrup)
 
auricle = little ear
pinna = feather, wing
cerumen = ear wax (cera=wax)
ossicles = little bones
incus = in-strike (cudere)
vertigo = dizziness (verto=to turn)
tinnitus = ringing (tinnio=to ring)


 
 
 

14) Musculoskeletal System
carp/o – carpals (karphos = bits of wood)
clavic/o – clavicle (claviculi = little key)
clavicul/o –       “
cost/o – rib
crani/o – skull
femor/o – femur
(feo = fertile à fero = to bear)
fibul/o – fibula (figo = to fasten à
fibula = brooch)
humer/o – humerus (omos = shoulder)
ili/o – ilium (ilia = flank)
ischi/o – ischium (ischion = hip)
lumb/o - loin
mandibul/o – mandible
maxill/o – maxilla (macerare = to chew)
patell/o – patella (= small shallow dish)
pelv/i – pelvis (Ch. 9) (also: pelv/o)
phalang/o – digits
(= Greek battle formation)
pub/o – pubis (puber = coming of hairs)
rachi/o – spine, vertebral column
radi/o – radius (= spoke)
sacr/o - sacrum
scapul/o – scapulus (scapter = digger)
stern/o – sternum (sternon = chest)
tars/o – tarsus
(tarsos = flat wicker basket)
tibi/o – tibia
uln/o – ulna (olene = elbow)
vertebr/o – vertebral column
(verto = turn à vertebra = joint)
rachi/o –           “          
(rachos = thorn à rachis = spine)
spondyl/o –      “           (= vertebra)
 
Joints:
aponeur/o – aponeurosis (upon tendon)
arthr/o – joint
burs/o – bursa (pouch)

chondr/o – cartilage
(chondron = cooked porridge)
disk/o – intervertebral disk
menisc/o – meniscus (little moon)
synovi/o – synovial membrane
(with an egg)
ten/o – tendon (teino = to stretch)
tend/o – “
tendin/o – “
 
Others:
ankyl/o – crooked, stiff (ankyl à bent)
kinesi/o – movement (also kin/e)
kyph/o – humped, hunched
(kyphos = curved, bent)
lamin/o – thin flat layers
lord/o – bent (lordos = bent back)
myel/o – bone marrow
myelon/o – “
my/o – muscle
myos/o – “
oste/o – bone
petr/o – stone
scoli/o – crooked, curved
 
Prefixes:
inter – between
supra – above
sym – together
syn –    “
 
Suffixes:
-asthenia – weakness
-clasis – break
-clast – “
-clasia – “
-desis – surgical fixation, fusion
-physis – growth
-schisis – split, fissure



15) Nervous System
cerebr/o – cerebrum (brain)
cerebell/o – cerebellum (little brain)
dur/o – dura mater (hard)
encephal/o – brain (in head)
gangli/o – ganglion (knot)
ganglion/o – “
mening/o – meninges (menigx = membrane)
myel/o – spinal cord (= marrow)
neur/o – nerve
radic/o – nerve root
radicul/o –       “
rhiz/o –             “
 
Others:
esthesi/o – sensation, feeling
mon/o – one
phas/o – speech
poli/o – gray matter
psych/o – mind (soul)
ment/o –           “
phren/o –          “
quadr/i – four
 
Prefixes:
pre- before
tetra- four
 
Suffixes:
-iatry – treatment
-iatrist – specialist, physician
-ictal – seizure, attack
-paresis – slight paralysis
 
 
 
 

16) Endocrine System
acr/o – extremities, height
aden/o – gland (Ch. 2)
calc/i – calcium
dips/o – thirst
kal/i – potassium
natr/o – sodium
toxic/o – poison
adren/o – adrenal gland (= to kidney)
adrenal/o -        “
cortic/o – cortex (bark)
endocrin/o – endocrine (within separate)
parathyroid/o – parathyroid gland (beside thyroid)
thyroid/o – thyroid gland (shield resembling)
thyr/o –            “
 
Others:
hypophys/o – pituitary (below grow)
trop/o – turn
hormon/o – endocrine secretion (hormaien = begin action)
metabol/o – chemical processes (metabole = to change)
 
Suffix:
-drome – running