Independent Variables
MTSS Model Evaluation Method

Description of Teaching and Learning Independent Variables

Learning Behaviors

  • Student attends class regularly and consistently.
  • Student participates in instructional activities for guided practice in learning mathematics.
  • Student practices skill by completing homework assignments.
  • Student completes quizzes to self-monitor learning progress.
  • Student self-evaluates achievement of learning outcome, and uses Math Bucks to access 2nd attempt on quiz.
  • Student self-directs use of Math Assistance Center as needed, and when prompted to do so by the Instructor.

Self-Directed Behavior

  • A central argument for using formative assessment is to empower students as self‐directed learners, and refers to the degree to which students can regulate aspects of their thinking, motivation and behavior during learning (Alberto & Troutman, 2006; Andriessen, Phalet, & Lens, 2006; Bandura, 1986; Cauley & Rhymer, 2003).
  • Self-directed behavior is manifested in the active monitoring and regulation of a number of different learning processes, including: setting of, and orientation towards learning goals (pass the course); strategies used to achieve goals (attending class); management of resources (using the MAC if failing quiz); effort exerted (completing homework); reactions to external feedback (attending Tier III if failing unit exam); and, outcomes accomplished (Garavaliad & Gredler, 2002; Schloemer & Brennan, 2006; Zimmerman, 1990).
  • Self‐directed learners actively accept affirmative/corrective feedback, for example, from teachers and other students, in relation to their internal goal to pass.

Math Assistance Center

  • MAC is a re-dedicated classroom equipped with 25 computer-aided instruction stations.
  • MAC is staffed by selected mathematics and mathematics education majors.
  • MAC is open for walk-ins daily with extended hours prior to unit exams.
  • MAC offers individual learning assistance for each failed quiz.
  • MAC offers small group supplemental instruction to reinforce automaticity skills.
  • MAC is supervised by Tier III instructor.

Teaching Behaviors

  • Explicit instruction clarifies expected learning outcome for each class and uses an instructional routine that prompts and supports student engagement in interactive learning.
  • Explicit instruction utilizes formative assessment to screen and determine levels of support needed for each student to pass each learning outcome to facilitate the development of self‐assessment in learning, and provide information to inform instruction.
  • Explicit instruction delivers direct and timely information to students about their learning progress to refer student for Tier II assistance if failing quiz to close the gap between current and desired performance.
  • When using explicit instruction, instructor provides continuous performance feedback to direct guided practice as students work in pairs to solve assigned problems to encourage teacher-student dialogue about learning.
  • Instructor includes Math Mentor in classroom to reduce student/teacher ratio and encourage positive motivational beliefs supporting interactive learning.
  • Instructor daily records minutes of class when using Traditional Instruction, Explicit Instruction, or Test Preparation/Review.

Formative Assessment and Performance Feedback

  • Formative assessment refers to assessment that is specifically intended to generate feedback on performance to improve and accelerate learning (Alberto & Troutman, 2006; Archer & Hughes, 2011; Butler & Winne, 1995; National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008).
  • Performance feedback is information about how the student’s present state (of learning and performance) relates to the class goals and learning outcomes.
  • Effective feedback practices strengthen the students’ capacity to self‐regulate their own performance (Nicol & Macfarlane-Dick, 2006; Schienk & Zimmerman, 1998).