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Vertebrate Anatomy - BIOL 381

Vertebrate Anatomy
BIOL 381 (&381L), 3/1 cr. hrs.
Black Hills State University
Spring, 2008
 
Course Meeting Time and Location:
lecture - 12:00-12:50 MWF, BJA 304
lab - 3:00-4:50 Tuesday, BJS 147
 
Instructor’s Contact Information:
Dr. Charles Lamb
Office - BJS 150
Office hours – MW 1-2, TTh 8-9
Phone - 642-6026
 
Course Description :
This course is a study of the anatomy of the vertebrates with an emphasis on the mammals.
 
Course Prerequisites:
This course requires prior completion of BIOL 151 & 151L, and concurrent enrollment in BIOL 381 & 381L. As far as student preparation, I will announce the required reading for each meeting in advance, and I expect each student to read the material before coming to class. Falling behind in this course is easy to do and difficult to remedy (we will be covering approximately 750 pages of text in lecture alone!), so it is the responsibility of each student to be prepared. 
 
Description of Instructional Methods:
The material will be taught using a combination of lecture presentations, laboratory dissections of the cat, prosected material from humans and other organisms, videodisc material on the human body, and computerized instruction formats.
 
Course Requirements:
Textbooks:
            Lecture -          Human Anatomy                                                                    (required)
                                                Martini, Timmons, & Tallitsch
 
            Lab -                A Study of the Cat: with Reference to Human Beings          (required)
                                                Walker and Homberger
 
Attendance Policy -
Regular attendance is the responsibility of each student. You will not be penalized for missing lectures (other than having to depend on your fellow students for the material covered that day), but I plan on covering about 30 pages of text per day and it is your responsibility to keep up with the class. In laboratory, I expect you to put in as much time and effort as it takes to learn the structures of the body. How you do this is your business, but I strongly recommend taking advantage of the time that I am with you in the laboratory. Students may not miss an examination, unless they contact me prior to the scheduled examination date to arrange for a make-up exam. Any unexcused absences will result in the student receiving zero points for that examination.
 

Cheating and plagiarism policy -
Each student should be familiar with the guidelines for Personal Identification and Representation as stated in the Student Handbook. The following passage is particularly relevant:
 
            "A student who, in connection with his or her studies, disrupts a class, plagiarizes, cheats, or otherwise violates reasonable standards of academic behavior may, at the discretion of the faculty member involved, have his or her enrollment cancelled and/or be given a reduced or failing grade."
 
You're investing your money and your time in order to get a quality education, so I expect all of you to act as responsible adults.
 
Make-up policy -
(see above)
 
Course Learning Goals or Objectives:
We will be learning how form is related to function in the vertebrate body. You should come out of this course with a detailed knowledge of how structure affects function in different organ systems in the body. This course is designed to prepare students for advanced study in professional or graduate school programs.
 
Evaluation Procedures:
Students will receive separate grades for the lecture and laboratory portions of this course. The grades will be determined as follows:
 
Percentage
Grade
Lecture
Lab
90-100 %
A
324-360 pts
225-250 pts
80-89
B
288-323
200-224
70-79
C
252-287
175-199
60-69
D
216-251
150-174
<60
F
0-215
0-149
 
Lecture -
Each of the three exams will cover only material presented during that section of the course. They will be worth 100 points each. In addition to the 3 exams, there will be 3 short quizes worth 20 points each. Thus, there are 360 points available in the lecture portion of the course.
 
Labs -
Each student's performance in lab will be evaluated by two practical exams, each involving only the material covered during that portion of the course. These tests are worth 100 points each. An additional 50 points is available in the form of a lab notebook that the student produces during the course of the semester. This notebook will be a collection of notes, drawings, comments, etc. that the student will contribute to every day they are in the lab. It will be graded on originality, completeness, and effort, so copied or traced material is discouraged. There is no set format that each student must follow, but this should be approached as a study aid to help you learn the multitude of structures that you will be responsible for in lab. 
 
ADA Statement (must be used verbatim):
“Reasonable accommodations, as arranged through the Disabilities Services Coordinator, will be provided students with documented disabilities. Contact the BHSU Disabilities Services Coordinator at 642-6099 (room 022 in the Student Union) for more information.”

Academic Freedom and Responsibility (must be used verbatim):
“Under Board of Regents and University policy student academic performance may be evaluated solely on an academic basis, not on opinions or conduct in matters unrelated to academic standards. Students should be free to take reasoned exception to the data or views offered in any course of study and to reserve judgment about matters of opinion, but they are responsible for learning the content of any course of study for which they are enrolled. Students who believe that an academic evaluation reflects prejudiced or capricious consideration of student opinions or conduct unrelated to academic standards should contact the chair of the department in which the course is being taught to initiate a review of the evaluation.”
 
Tentative Course Outline/Schedule:
Lecture:
            Section 1 -       Chapters 1-8 in Martini, Timmons, and Tallitsch;
                                    Quiz on Mon., Feb. 08; Exam on Wed., Feb. 25
 
            Section 2 -       Chapters 9-18 in Martini, Timmons, and Tallitsch;
                                    Quiz on Mon., Mar. 14; Exam on Mon., Apr. 07
 
            Section 3 -       Chapters 19-28 in Martini, Timmons, and Tallitsch;
                                    Quiz on Mon., Apr. 23; Exam at 8:00 AM on Thur., May 08 (Final)
 
    
Lab:
            Section 1 -       External anatomy, Skeleton, Muscles
                                    Exam on Tues., Mar. 04
 
            Section 2 -       Nervous, Digestive, Respiratory, Circulatory, and Urogenital systems
                                    Exam on Tues., April 29
 
(See following pages for a detailed schedule.)  
 
 
Academic Dishonesty Statement:
Each student should be familiar with the guidelines for Personal Identification and Representation as stated in the Student Handbook (pp.18-19... or wherever it is located in this year’s version). The following passage is particularly relevant:
      "A student who, in connection with his or her studies, disrupts a class, plagiarizes, cheats, or otherwise violates reasonable standards of academic behavior may, at the discretion of the faculty member involved, have his or her enrollment cancelled and/or be given a reduced or failing grade."
You're investing your money and your time in order to get a quality education, so I expect all of you to act as responsible adults.
 
 

Vertebrate Anatomy (BIOL 381) Lecture Schedule (tentative):
(Spring, 2008)
 


Date
Topic
Jan 18
Introduction (Ch.1)
21
MLK Day
23
Tissues
25
no class (Science Fair)
28
     "    
30
Integument (Ch. 4)
Feb 01
     "    
04
Skeletal Structure (Ch. 5)
06
     "
08
Axial Skeleton (Ch. 6) (Quiz 1)
11
     "
13
Appendicular Skeleton (Ch. 7)
15
     "
18
Presidents' Day
20
Articulations (Ch. 8)
22
     "
25
Exam 1
27
Muscle Tissue (Ch. 9)
29
     "
Mar 03
Muscles (Ch. 10-11)
05
     "
07
Nerves (Ch. 13)
10
Spinal Cord & Nerves (Ch. 14)
12
     "
14
Brain (Ch. 15/16) (Quiz 2)
17
Spring Break
19
     "
21
     "
24
Easter Monday
26
Brain (cont.)
28
Autonomic Nerv. Syst. (Ch. 17)
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mar 31
Senses (Ch. 18)
Apr 02
     "
04
     "
07
Exam 2
09
Endocrine System (Ch. 19)
11
Heart (Ch. 21)
14
Vessels (Ch. 22)
16
Respiratory System (Ch. 24)
18
Digestive System (Ch. 25)
21
     "    
23
Urogenital Systems (Ch. 26/27) (Quiz 3)
25
     "
28
     "
30
Development (Ch. 28)
May 02
     "
09
Exam 3 (8:00 on Thurs., 08 May)


 
 


Laboratory Schedule:
 
 
Week 1 - 22 Jan                Skeletal System I: axial skeleton -- pp. 10-37                        (140 terms)
 
 
Week 2 - 29 Jan                Skeletal System II: appendicular skeleton -- pp. 38-50         (91 terms)
 
 
Week 3 - 05 Feb               Muscles I: extern. surf., cutan. trunk, caud. trunk, pect. muscles
                                                      pp. 4-7, 60-72                                                              (23 terms)
 
Week 4 - 12 Feb               Muscles II: pectoral (cont.) -- pp. 72-84                                 (37 terms)
 
 
Week 5 - 19 Feb               Muscles III: pelvic muscles -- pp. 84-97                                (43 terms)
 
 
Week 6 - 26 Feb               Muscles IV: pelvic (cont.) -- pp. 97-109                                 (33 terms)
 
 
Week 7 - 04 Mar               Midterm Exam -- Ch. 1-4                                                       (367 terms)
 
 
Week 8 - 11 Mar               Central Nervous System: (demo - coronal sections of sheep brain)
                                                      pp. 127-151                                                                 (142 terms)
 
Week 9 - 18 Mar               Spring Break
 
 
Week 10 - 25 Mar             Peripheral Nervous System & Sensory Organs: (demo - eye & ear)
                                                      pp. 151-157, 112-123                                                  (112 terms)
                 
Week 11 - 01 Apr              Digestive & Respiratory Systems: (demo - pig lungs & heart)
                                                      pp. 158-186                                                                 (156 terms)
 
Week 12 - 08 Apr              Circulatory System I: cranial to heart (demo - sheep & ox hearts)
                                                      pp. 187-209                                                                 (93 terms)
 
Week 13 - 15 Apr              Circulatory System II: caudal to heart -- pp. 209-226            (121 terms)
 
 
Week 14 - 22 Apr              Urogenital Systems: (demo - pig kidney & cow repro. tracts)
                                                      pp. 238-257                                                                 (100 terms)
 
Week 15 – 29 Apr             Final Exam -- Ch. 5-9; Lab notebooks due                           (724 terms)
                                         
 


Safety Guidelines for anatomy labs:
 
·        Follow all instructions given by your teacher.
 
·        Do not bring food or drinks into the laboratory.
 
·        Minimize contact with preservative chemicals:
 
- rinse the specimens completely before dissection;
 
- wear gloves (provided by us) and protective clothing during dissection;
 
- wear safety goggles (provided by us) to prevent the splashing of any chemicals into the eyes - do not wear contact lenses into the lab under any circumstances;
 
- know where the eye-wash fountain is and how to use it if needed;
 
- never ingest specimen parts, or bring hands near mouth or eyes;
 
- inform your teacher of any illness or injury resulting from exposure to specimens, chemicals, or tools used in the laboratory.
 
·        Handle dissection equipment (provided by us) with extreme care.
 
·        Treat all specimens with appropriate respect and consideration, any inappropriate behavior will result in access to the lab being limited to scheduled class time only.
 
·        Use only your specimen for dissection.
 
·        Never remove specimens or specimen parts from the classroom - until the dissection is completed all parts of the dissection must remain within the dissecting pan.
 
·        Properly dispose of dissected materials – do not wash tissues into the sink or leave them on the counter or the floor.
 
·        Store specimens only as directed by your teacher.
 
·        Clean up the work area and return all equipment (washed and dried) to the proper place when the dissection is completed.
 
·        Wash hands after each dissection.


Anatomical Structures for BIOL 381L
(bold terms from Walker & Homberger)
 
Cat Skeletal System
 
Axial Skeleton
Vertebrae:
cervical –
transverse foramen, atlas, axis, alar foramen, dens
thoracic –
vertebral arch, spinous process, vertebral canal, vertebral body (centrum), acoelous,
cranial articular processes, caudal articular processes, diapophyses, articular facet, pedicle,
intervertebral foramina, accessory process
lumbar –
pleurapophysis, mamillary process
sacral –
sacrum, dorsal/ventral foramina
caudal –
hemal arches, hemal processes
 
Ribs –
head, tuberculum, neck, body, costal cartilage, vertebrosternal ribs, vertebrocostal ribs,
vertebral ribs, true ribs, false ribs
 
Sternum –
sternebrae, manubrium, xiphisternum, body, xiphoid process
 
 
Head Skeleton
General:
facial region, cranial region, nares, orbits, foramen magnum, occipital condyle, tympanic bullae, external acoustic meatus, mastoid process, paracondylar process, zygomatic arch,
mandibular fossa, temporal fenestra, postorbital processes, nuchal crest, sagittal crest,
temporal line, hard palate, choanae, pterygoid process, hamulus, pterygoid fossa, incisive, lacrimal, zygomatic, temporal, squamous portion, petrosal portion , tympanic, endotympanic, malleus, incus, stapes, nasals, frontals, parietals, occipital, interparietal, ethmoid, basisphenoid, presphenoid, vomer, palatine, sutural ligament, periosteum, lambdoidal suture, sagittal suture, synchondroses
 
Interior:
cranial cavity, caudal cranial fossa, rostral cranial fossa, tentorium, internal acoustic meatus,
sella turcica, sphenoidas air sinus, frontal air sinus, cribriform plate, ethmoid, perpendicular plate, conchae, dorsal concha, ventral concha, middle concha, ventral nasal meatus
 
Foramina:
cribriform foramina, optic canal, orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, internal acoustic meatus, stylomastoid foramen, jugular foramen, hypoglossal canal, ethmoid foramen, infraorbital canal, alveolar foramina, sphenopalatine foramen, palatine fissure, palatine canal, pterygoid canal, auditory tube lacrimal canal, carotid canal, condyloid canal, fenestra vestibuli, fenestra cochleae
 
Lower Jaw:
mandible, dentary bones, intermandibular joint, body, masseteric fossa, coronoid process,
condyloid process, angular process, mandibular foramen, mental foramina
 
Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral Girdle:
scapula (coracoid process, glenoid fossa, dorsal border, cranial border, caudal border, scapular spine, acromion, metacromion, supraspinous fossa, subscapular fossa), clavicle, humerus (head, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, intertubercular groove, condyle, trochlea, capitulum, olecranon fossa, medial epicondyle lateral epicondyle, supracondylar foramen, body), ulna (trochlear notch, olecranon, coronoid process, radial notch, lateral styloid process), radius (head, radial tuberosity, medial styloid process), manus, carpus, carpal bones, scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, sesamoid bones, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate, metacarpals, phalanges
 
Pelvic Girdle:
ilium, ischium, pubis, os coxae (acetabulum, crest, obturator foramen, tuberosity of the ischium, symphyses, pelvic canal), femur (head, greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, trochanteric fossa, lateral condyle, medial condyle, epicondyles, intercondyloid fossa), patella, tibia (condyles, tuberosity, crest, medial malleolus), fibula (lateral malleolus), pes, tarsus, tarsal bones, talus, calcaneus, tuber calcanei, sustentaculum tali, navicular, medial cuneiform, intermediate cuniform, lateral cuniform, cuboid, metatarsals, phalanges
 


Cat Muscles
 
MUSCLE GROUP                                        NAME
Caudal Hypaxial Muscles                                  External obliques
                                                                        Internal obliques
                                                                        Transversus abdominis
                                                                        Rectus abdominis
                                                                        Quadratus lumborum
                                                                        Psoas minor
 
Caudal Epaxial Muscles                                    Multifidus
                                                                        Erector spinae
 
Pectoralis Group                                               Pectoralis superficialis
                                                                                    (p. descendens & p. transversus)
                                                                        Pectoralis profundus ( & xiphihumeralis)
 
Trapezius & Sternocleidomastoid Group           Thoracic trapezius
                                                                        Cervical trapezius
                                                                        Cleidocervicalis
                                                                        Cleidobrachialis 
                                                                        Sternomastoid
                                                                        Cleidomastoid
 
Superficial Muscles of the Shoulder                   Omotransversarius
                                                                        Acromiodeltoid
                                                                        Scapulodeltoid
                                                                        Latissimus dorsi
 
Deeper Muscles of the Shoulder                       Supraspinatus
                                                                        Infraspinatus
                                                                        Teres major
                                                                        Teres minor
                                                                        Rhomboideus cervicis et thoracis
                                                                        Rhomboideus capitis
                                                                        Serratus ventralis
                                                                        Subscapularis
 
Brachium                                                          Tensor fasciae antebrachii
                                                                        Triceps brachii
                                                                                    (long head, lateral head, medial head)
                                                                        Anconeus
                                                                        Brachialis
                                                                        Biceps brachii
                                                                        Coracobrachialis
 
Antebrachium                                                   Fasciae antebrachii
Extensor retinaculum
Flexor retinaculum
Brachioradialis
                                                                        Extensor carpi ...
                                                                                    radialis longus
                                                                                    radialis brevis
                                                                                    ulnaris
                                                                        Extensor digitorum communis
                                                                        Extensor digitoum lateralis
                                                                        Extensor digiti I
                                                                        Extensor digiti II
                                                                        Abductor pollicis longus
                                                                        Supinator
                                                                        Pronator teres
                                                                        Flexor carpi radialis
                                                                        Flexor carpi ulnaris
                                                                        Flexor digitorum superficialis
                                                                        Flexor digitorum profundus
                                                                                    (ulnar head; 2,3,4 heads; radial head)
                                                                        Lumbricales
                                                                        Pronator quadratus
 
Lateral Thigh                                                    Sartorius
                                                                        Tensor fasciae latae
                                                                        Biceps femoris
                                                                        Semitendinosus
                                                                        Caudofemoralis
                                                                        Abductor cruris caudalis
 
Deeper pelvic muscles                          Gluteus superficialis
                                                                        Gluteus medius
                                                                        Gluteus profundus
                                                                        Piriformis
                                                                        Articularis coxae
                                                                        Gemellus cranialis
                                                                        Gemellus caudalis
                                                                        Obturator internus
                                                                        Coccygeus
                                                                        Quadratus femoris
                                                                        Obturator externus
 
Quadriceps Femoris Complex                           Vastus lateralis
                                                                        Rectus femoris
                                                                        Vastus medialis
                                                                        Vastus intermedius
 
Caudomedial Thigh Muscles                             Gracilis
                                                                        Semimembranosus
                                                                        Pectineus
                                                                        Adductor femoris longus
                                                                        Adductor femoris brevis et magnus
 
Illiopsoas Complex                                           Iliopsoas (Psoas major, Iliacus)
 
Shank                                                               Gastrocnemius
                                                                        Flexor digitorum superficialis
                                                                        Soleus
                                                                        Popliteus
                                                                        Flexor digitorum longus
                                                                        Flexor hallucis longus
                                                                        Flexor digitorum brevis
                                                                        Tibialis caudalis
                                                                        Tibialis cranialis
                                                                        Extensor digitorum longus
                                                                        Extensor digitorum brevis
                                                                        Peroneus longus
                                                                        Peroneus tertius
                                                                        Peroneus brevis
 
Cranial Hypaxial Muscles                                  External intercostals
                                                                        Internal intercostals
                                                                        Transversus thoracis
                                                                        Rectus thoracis
                                                                        Scalenus
                                                                        Serratus dorsalis
                                                                        Longus colli
 
Cranial Epaxial Muscles                                    Splenius
                                                                        Spinalis
                                                                        Longissimus dorsi
                                                                        Longissimus capitis
                                                                        Iliocostalis
                                                                        Semispinalis cervicis et capitis
 
Posthyoid Hypobrancial Muscles                      Sternohyoid
                                                                        Sternothyroid
                                                                        Thyrohyoid
 
Prehyoid Hypobranchial Muscles                      Geniohyoid
                                                                        Hyoglossus
                                                                        Genioglossus
                                                                        Styloglossus
                                                                        Lingualis proprius
 
Mandibular Branchiomeric Muscles                   Digastric
                                                                        Mylohyoid
                                                                        Masseter
                                                                        Temporalis
 
Hyoid Muscles                                     Platysma
                                                                        Facial muscles
                                                                        Stylohyoid
                                                                        Stapedius
 
Caudal Branchiomeric Muscles             Thyroarytenoid
                                                                        Cricoarytenoid
                                                                        Cricothyroid
 
Other                                                               Cutaneous trunci